In Do you know what is vitamin B? What can be wrong with a deficiency? Where else can you get it besides vegetables?B1B2B3, Food and Heart shared with you the effects of vitamins B1,B2 and B3 on the human body and food sources, in this issue let’s continue to learn about other B vitamins.
Vitamin B5 – Pantothenic Acid
Vitamin B5, also known as pantothenic acid and allantoic acid, is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and carbohydrates. Pantothenic acid synthesizes coenzyme A and is involved in the synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, ketone bodies, cholesterol, phospholipids, steroid hormones, neurotransmitters (such as acetylcholine) and antibodies.
1. 9 positive effects of vitamin B5 on the human body
Maintains cardiovascular health. Pantothenic acid helps lower bad cholesterol (LDL)) and triglyceride levels, raise good cholesterol (HDL) levels, and inhibit plaque formation.
Aids in the production of red blood cells.
Promotes nutrient metabolism. Pantothenic acid synthesizes acetyl coenzyme A, an enzyme that breaks down glucose into energy and is also involved in the breakdown and synthesis of fats and proteins. Eating foods high in pantothenic acid regularly can help keep one’s metabolism at optimal levels.
Supports nerve function. Pantothenic acid is involved in the synthesis of an important neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is an important signaling molecule that links nerve centers to internal organs (such as the heart, liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys) and is a key signal that links nerve centers to muscles, and without adequate pantothenic acid, nerve damage and movement disorders may occur.
Enhancement of mental performance. Pantothenic acid synthesizes acetyl coenzyme A, which is involved in the formation of nerve myelin sheaths that support normal brain function and help us cope with stress, anxiety and depression.
Control the stress response. Pantothenic acid is partially responsible for regulating adrenal function and producing the stress hormone cortisol. Pantothenic acid supplementation stimulates adrenal cells and promotes normal production of cortisol, which helps a person maintain normal focus and motivation.
Helps wound healing. Studies have shown that pantothenic acid can improve skin reactions caused by radiation therapy and accelerate wound healing. In addition, it helps delay premature skin aging (such as the development of wrinkles and dark spots on the skin) and reduces symptoms associated with eczema, insect bites and poison ivy.
Relieves symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
Protects the skin and prevents acne.
2. The dangers of vitamin B5 deficiency
Because pantothenic acid is widely available in a variety of foods, deficiencies are rare, but can still occur. Symptoms that may occur with pantothenic acid deficiency include irritability, fatigue, apathy, numbness, abnormal sensation, muscle weakness, insomnia, stomach pain, upper respiratory tract infections, and more.
In the population, people most at risk of vitamin B5 deficiency include pregnant women, women taking birth control pills, smokers, alcoholics, people suffering from chronic stress, people with severe malnutrition, and people with impaired absorption of vitamins and minerals due to medication or gastrointestinal disorders.
3. Vitamin B5 is essentially without risk of overdose
Like other B vitamins, pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin that is not stored in the body for a long period of time after absorption, and any excess is excreted in the urine, so there is basically no risk of overdose and needs to be obtained daily from the diet.
The recommended intake of pantothenic acid is 5mg/day for adults (both men and women), 6mg/day for pregnant women and 7mg/day for lactating women.
4. Which foods are rich in vitamin B5
Since pantothenic acid is commonly found in living cells, almost all animal and plant foods contain some amount of pantothenic acid. Foods with the highest pantothenic acid content include the following 8 groups.
Offal. 100 grams of cooked lamb liver can meet 127% of a person’s daily B5 requirement.
Lean meats: 100 grams of beef can meet 27% of a person’s daily B5 requirement.
Fish: 100 grams of salmon can meet 38% of a person’s daily B5 requirement.
Eggs and dairy: 100 grams of unadulterated yogurt can meet 8% of a person’s daily B5 requirement.
Nuts and seeds: 100 grams of sunflower seeds (without shell) meet 23% of a person’s daily B5 requirement.
Pulses: 100 g of lentils (cooked) can meet 13% of a person’s daily B5 requirement.
Mushrooms: 100 g of shiitake mushrooms (cooked) can meet 76% of a person’s daily B5 requirement.
Green leafy vegetables: 100 grams of cooked broccoli (boiled without salt) can meet 13% of a person’s daily B5 requirement.
VI. Vitamin B6 – pyridoxine
Vitamin B6, also known as pyridoxine, in its derivative form also includes pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate (the primary test when blood is tested for B6 levels). pyridoxal 5-phosphate is the active coenzyme form of B6 that assists the body in performing more than 100 enzymatic functions, including breaking down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, maintaining normal levels of homocysteine, and supporting immune function and brain health 1.
1. Top 10 important roles of vitamin B6 in the human body
Maintains healthy blood vessels. Mainly through the regulation of homocysteine metabolism
Supports brain function. Achieved primarily by controlling homocysteine levels and regulating pentraxin (5-HT) and norepinephrine metabolism
Improves mood. Mainly through the regulation of pentraxin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism.
Promotes anemia treatment. B6 is essential for the production of hemoglobin, which is vital to the body’s ability to transport oxygen to all cells.
Protects the eyes. B6 assists folic acid, which helps prevent eye disease and vision loss.
Relieves rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. People with rheumatoid arthritis are more likely to be deficient in B6, and adequate B6 helps to reduce inflammation and decrease pain.
Lower blood pressure.
Improves PMS symptoms. B6 helps combat symptoms such as breast pain, nausea, cramps, fatigue and headaches, and may even help reduce acne that occurs before a woman’s menstrual cycle. Foreign experts recommend that women who frequently experience PMS symptoms take regular B vitamin supplements, especially for the first 10 days of menstruation.
Reduces pregnancy sickness (morning sickness and nausea in pregnant women).
Improves sleep. B6 is involved in the synthesis of melatonin, which is responsible for the body’s internal clock and helps the body know when to sleep and when to be awake.
2. The dangers of vitamin B6 deficiency
Vitamin B6 is widely available in food sources and deficiencies do not usually occur. B6 deficiency is often accompanied by deficiencies in other B vitamins (such as folic acid and B12). Mild deficiencies may be asymptomatic, but more severe or chronic deficiencies may manifest as the following: easy fatigue, muscle pain, mouth ulcers, lowered immunity, emotional instability, worsening PMS symptoms, worsening anemia symptoms, cognitive decline and even mental illness.
Some conditions that can infect B6 absorption and increase the risk of deficiency include, among others
Intestinal disorders such as Crohn’s disease.
Impaired kidney function
3. Risk of vitamin B6 overdose
Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin and is not stored in the body. Excess B6 is excreted in the urine and it is important to eat B vitamin-rich foods or take supplements regularly to meet the body’s daily needs.
The recommended dietary intake of vitamin B6 for adult males (14-50 years) is 1.3 mg/day and 1.7 mg/day for those over 51 years of age; for females aged 14-18 years, the recommended dietary intake of B6 is 1.2 mg/day; for those aged 19-50 years, 1.2 mg/day; and for those over 51 years, 1.5 mg/day; increasing to 1.9 mg/day and 2.0 mg/day during pregnancy and lactation, respectively. /day.
Normal dietary intake of vitamin B6 is basically not excessive, but there is a risk of overdose when taking very high doses of B6 supplements (e.g., 1000 mg/day.) Symptoms of B6 overdose include: nausea, ataxia, and nerve damage in the arms and legs, although these symptoms generally subside when supplementation is discontinued.
Special Note: Vitamin B6 can interact with a variety of medications, such as chemotherapy drugs, antidepressants, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s medications, so it is best to check with your doctor to see if there will be interactions with other medications when taking B6 supplements.
4. What foods are rich in vitamin B6
The foods that are richest in vitamin B6 are the following eight main groups.
Offal. 100 grams of cooked lamb liver can meet 56% of a person’s daily B6 requirement.
Lean meat. 100 grams of lean chicken breast can meet 54% of a person’s daily B6 requirement.
Fish: 100 grams of salmon can meet 56% of a person’s daily B6 requirement.
Soy products: 100 grams of firm tofu can meet 29% of a person’s daily B6 requirement.
Beans: 100 grams of cooked lentils (boiled) can meet 10% of a person’s daily B6 requirement.
Nuts and seeds: 100 grams of cooked sesame seeds can meet 47% of a person’s daily B6 requirement.
Vegetables: 100 grams of cabbage can meet 7% of a person’s daily B6 requirement.
Fruits: 100 grams of bananas can meet 47% of a person’s daily B6 requirement.
Vitamin B7 – Biotin
Vitamin B7, also known as biotin, is a coenzyme of carboxylase and plays a key role in the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates.
B7 is sometimes referred to as vitamin H, which comes from the German words Haar and Haut, meaning “hair and skin”.
7 important effects of vitamin B7 on the human body
Promotes a healthy metabolism. Biotin converts glucose from carbohydrates and sugar sources into usable “fuel” that can be consumed; it also promotes the use of protein and fatty acids, which are essential for the body to maintain a normal metabolism. When the body does not have enough biotin, the new metabolism may become slow.
Helps balance blood sugar. Biotin reduces the expression of genes that stimulate glucose-producing-related enzymes in the liver, preventing excessive breakdown of liver glycogen into glucose in the bloodstream, and biotin also reduces some diabetic symptoms, such as nerve pain.
Maintain healthy skin, hair and nails. Biotin supports the production of enzymes and proteins needed for hair, skin and nail growth.
Protects brain function and fights cognitive decline. Biotin is involved in nerve signaling and neurotransmitter activity.
Maintains healthy cardiovascular health. Associated with the regulation of cholesterol levels by biotin.
Supports thyroid and adrenal gland function.
Promotes muscle repair and joint health.
It is important to note: While many daily products such as creams and hair masks currently add biotin to promote healthy skin and hair, the effectiveness of topical use on skin and hair remains questionable. The positive effects of consuming (through oral intake) biotin on skin, hair and nails are more certain.
2. The dangers of vitamin B7 deficiency
Biotin deficiency is very rare, but it can occur. The main symptoms of biotin deficiency include dry split ends and hair loss, dry skin, scaly rashes around the eyes, nose and mouth, and brittle nails.
A number of lifestyle and physiological factors can lead to an increased risk of biotin deficiency, mainly including
High consumption of raw egg whites.
Long-term use of antibiotics.
Long-term use of anti-epileptic drugs.
3. Risk of vitamin B7 overdose
Due to the lack of sufficient evidence, there is no recommended daily intake of biotin, but rather an adequate intake of 30 mcg/day for men and women over 19 years of age and pregnant women, and 35 mcg/day for lactating women.
Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin and there is generally no risk of overdose, so there is no concern at all when obtaining it from the diet. There is a risk of indigestion, nausea, cramps or diarrhea when taking high doses of B7 supplements.
4. Which foods are rich in vitamin B7
The foods that are richest in biotin include the following 10 main groups.
Offal, such as beef liver
Lean meats, such as lean pork
Fish, such as salmon
Dairy products, such as milk, yogurt and cheddar cheese
Nuts and seeds, such as walnuts, almonds, peanuts, and sunflower seeds
Legumes, such as peas and lentils
Other vegetables, such as broccoli, cauliflower, spinach, and radishes
Fruits, such as bananas, strawberries and avocados
Food and Heart Summary: Although the body’s need for pantothenic acid, vitamin B6 and biotin is not high, they are essential to maintain normal body functions. Eating foods rich in pantothenic acid, vitamin B6 and biotin not only promote healthy skin and muscles, but also help maintain normal metabolic levels and enhance cardiovascular and brain health, thus keeping people young, healthy, active and smart.
Pantothenic acid, vitamin B6 and biotin are available from a wide range of food sources and people who eat a balanced diet generally do not suffer from deficiencies. The body’s ability to synthesize vitamins is impaired when there is abnormal intestinal flora; and the body’s ability to absorb and utilize these vitamins is impaired when there is gastrointestinal disease; in addition, chronic alcohol consumption, or suffering from chronic emotional depression due to stress can cause deficiencies in these vitamins. If you are in this situation, you need to pay more attention to the B vitamin supplement.